A second aspect has to do with the acquisition of those skills and techniques of intellectual work that facilitate autonomous learning and the intelligent search for the necessary information in order to solve small challenges, problems or cases that make interdisciplinary work of the different fields of knowledge (linguistic, mathematical, knowledge of the natural and social environment, etc.).
A third axis to work on would be digital and personal competencies worked on in a cross-cutting manner.
Assessment should be the final block to be configured: being understood as a process that regulates learning and not as a qualification. This aspect should be reserved for the end when it is necessary to certify that the intended objectives have been achieved.
Knowledge and skills
It is generally accepted that we live in a knowledge society, i.e., a knowledge that should be used beyond its storage in our heads. This statement does not mean that we should dispense with long-term memory since it is the one that allows us not to burden our working memory. To me, it has not been demonstrated that factual knowledge (learning facts), for example, is opposed to a competency-based approach to the curriculum. I do not find it productive to contrast such concepts. I consider illustrative the comparison in an article written by Jaume Trilla about the expository master class and the active master class. Both processes have their virtues and shortcomings, but especially the latter is compatible with what we now call learning by doing or other methodologies currently emerging. I am afraid that many who encourage mainly oral presentations teaching-based lessons maintain at the same time that the best way for their students to learn relies upon themselves transmitting knowledge. And we are then demonstrating it in traditional exams if you like.
In Catalonia, the application of the competency-based curriculum in compulsory education began in 2008, based on the LOE (2006). It identifies eight essential competencies and incorporates them into the curriculum. A broad consensus defines competencies as the ability to use the skills, knowledge, and know-how acquired and incorporated throughout our lives and apply them in everyday situations and specific contexts. According to this, there is no overwhelming incompatibility between competencies and knowledge, in my opinion.
Historically, we have distinguished two types of knowledge: theoretical and practical. The first focuses on all the information that allows us to know the world around us; the second has more to do with know-how in interaction with the natural, social, cultural, etc., environment. I understand that there is no opposition but complementarity between the two concepts.
Theory and practice
We often come across educational professionals who contrast the theoretical framework with daily classroom practice as if they were opposing fields. What teacher is there who does not base their practice on some theoretical postulate? To act in this way would denote a certain lack of professionalism since we cannot fall into the simplification that theory is not practice and vice versa. Suppose there is interference between the two fields. In that case, it is undoubtedly due to the different interpretations of the meaning of terminology, which is constantly changing. Concepts have the force they have, but by themselves, they do not bring about any change, let alone educational innovation. We need to work towards regaining trust between the teaching profession and scientific, academic research.