Transformational and distributed leadership
The term leadership seems to be associated with a single person (usually at the top of the organizational hierarchy) and he or she must be responsible for all these roles. However, many experts agree that successful change leadership cannot rely on the ability of a single senior manager. Senge, for example (Senge et al., 1999 cited by Rimbau), argues that one or two people in top management cannot be responsible for anticipating and coping with the enormous diversity of challenges that arise when attempting to implement transformational change. The solution is to develop a community of interdependent leaders throughout the organization.
Since the early years of the 21st century, there has been an increasing number of contributions that seek to generate a new theoretical-practical framework that contributes to the development of a different model of leadership for change and school improvement, which is centered on an approach to leadership shared by the school community as a whole (Spillane, Halverson and Diamond 2001; Macbeth, 2005 cited by Murillo 2006). This is called distributed leadership.
This role is inherent to an entire group and, by extension, to an entire institution. For this reason, there is more and more talk of leadership than of leader. The tendency is to see it as an individual and charismatic characteristic, and more as a function inherent to every human group, in the same way that the need to improve, the function of pressure and control over its members, professional development, the construction of the specific institutional mission or the satisfaction of the members is inherent. (Lorenzo, 2004, cited by Tintoré, 2016).
To make this type of leadership operational, it seems necessary to encompass competencies related to people management, decision making, persuasiveness and conditions linked to openness, participation and the establishment of more democratic relationships that ensure permanent transformation processes (Cayulef, 2007 cited by Gordo, Fernández, Martínez and Roca, 2013).
Consequently, we can say that leadership plays a fundamental role in obtaining results and improving professional quality. It is justified that in recent years the so-called culture of leadership is gaining more and more strength in schools and that leadership is considered as one of the key factors when considering the effectiveness of the school and the quality of education.